Rune Dictionary

written by Professor Wessex

An introduction to the interpretation and usage of Germanic runes.

Last Updated






Chapter 13: The Fragments of Hagall’s Aett in the Younger Futhark

Chapter 15
ᚼ ᚽ
Hagalaz --- Hagall
/h/, as in the English high, the French hotte, and the Spanish ojo
Meaning: Hail
Changes: The shape of the rune changed drastically from the Elder Futhark to the Younger Futhark.

ᚾ ᚿ
Naudhiz --- Nauðr or Naudh
Phonetic value: /n/, as in the English month, the French connexion, and the Spanish cantar
Meaning: Constraint / Need
Changes: In addition to keeping the original meaning of need, Naudh also can indicate constraint, or some sort of restriction.

Isa --- Íss or Is
Phonetic value: /i/, as in the English free, the French fini, and the Spanish tipo
/e/, as in the English bird
Meaning: Ice
Changes: The additional /e/ sound, explained in more detail below, is new and was not included in Isa -- the parent rune’s -- possible sound values.
Magical Uses: Because of its shape, it is difficult to tell when the rune being used is from the Elder Futhark, a confirmed magical script, and the Younger or Anglo-Saxon. However, some inscriptions and bindrunes seem to possess a magical effect not generally attributed to Isa. These few inscriptions that seem to intent to enhance the clarity of various divining methods are used as proof by the scholarly sub-group who believes in the magical meanings of the younger runic scripts.
General Notes: This particular expression of the /e/ sound is further clarified as “ɜ” and pronounced as such.

ᛅ ᛆ
Jera --- Ar
Phonetic value: /a/, as in the English, stock, the French patte, and the Spanish madre
/æ/, as in the English cat, and the French bain
/ɔ/, as in the English thought, and the French sort
Meaning: Plenty / Harvest
Changes: This rune bears little resemblance to the shape of its parent rune in the Elder Futhark. The sound values show further changes. Neither the original /j/ or /i/ (also expressed as “y’) have been preserved, and instead there are variations on the vowel “a”. Harvest has remained as a meaning, but has also been expanded to mean plenty, a meaning which was absent in the original Elder Futhark.

ᛦ ᛣ ᛧ
Eihwaz --- Yr
Phonetic value: /j/, as in the English you, the French yeaux, and the Spanish ayer
Meaning: Yew tree
Changes: The rune shape has changed from one futhark to the other, and the pronunciation has changed from the original “eo” sound to the “y” sound.
General Notes: It may surprise you to see the initial letter of the English word “you” represented by the symbol /j/, but this is not an error, and in fact the sound that English speakers associate with “y.” Note: the “a” sound is not part of the pronunciation, it is used as a break between the first and second repetitions of /j/. However, it useful to note that for ease of quick reference, the sound is often simply written “y” in pronunciation guides for speakers of English.

ᛋ ᛍ
Sowilo --- Sol
Phonetic value: /s/, as in the English sand, the French façade, and the Spanish saltador
[ks], which those who speak English think of as “x”, as in the English six
Meaning: Sun
Changes: In addition to retaining its original /s/ phonetic value, Sol has additional sound of “ks.”
Hogwarts is Here © 2023 was made for fans, by fans, and is not endorsed or supported directly or indirectly with Warner Bros. Entertainment, JK Rowling, Wizarding World Digital, or any of the official Harry Potter trademark/right holders.
Powered by minervaa